砍伐森林的影响: How Does Agriculture Cause Deforestation?

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我们的森林以惊人的速度消失,在我们的盘子上就找到了领先的原因。

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砍伐森林的影响: How Does Agriculture Cause Deforestation?

我们的森林以惊人的速度消失,在我们的盘子上就找到了领先的原因。

Upwards of50,000英亩森林被全世界每天的农民和伐木者清除,相当于10,000多个足球场每天都被摧毁亚马逊盆地独自的。

这种极端清除的土地,特别是动物农业,结果栖息地损失,温室气体的扩增,水循环破坏,土壤侵蚀增加,洪水过度。


              

在雨林中发生大量的森林砍伐殖民,这些雨林在家50%植物和动物在地球上。如果我们人类继续燃烧和推翻我们的雨林,每年都会死亡,每年都会死亡,我们将减掉小麦,巧克力和咖啡等作物,气候变化的影响将恶化。

现在覆盖气候 这个故事是的一部分现在覆盖气候,全球合作超过250个新闻网点,以加强气候故事的覆盖范围。

什么是森林砍伐?

森林砍伐是土地的大规模清算,一般用于农业,工业或运输。

牛牧场,动物农业和伐木是领导原因of deforestation in our forests. Land is cut or burned to make room for cattle grazing, feed crop production, and timber to build houses and create specialty wood products.

我们森林的持续破坏威胁生物多样性,降低碳吸收,放大自然灾害损伤,破坏水循环。

How Does Animal Agriculture Cause Deforestation?

一种s the global demand for meat rises, so does the number of cattle needed to produce beef. Those animals require space and nourishment, so millions of acres of untouched land are cleared every year to make room for feed crops and grazing pastures. But additionally, forests are cleared to produce feed for other animals, too, like pigs and chickens.

动物总是需要更多的卡路里来提高比他们为人类吃的卡路里吃。因此,动物农业总是比农业生产基于植物的食物直接为人类的破坏性。

牛牧场

畜牧业占据45 percent在全球表面积,额外的10%旨在为这些动物种植饲料作物。

几乎60%世界上耕地仅用于牛肉生产,这需要大量的土地用于放牧和培养大豆等饲料作物。

大豆生产有doubled在过去的20年里,主要受到畜牧业的影响。每年,大约120万英亩的土地都被清除了热带气候的大豆生产,如果世界不降低动物蛋白质消费,那么这个数字将继续攀升。

Our biodiverse rainforests are often hit the hardest by deforestation, including the plant and animal species residing within them. At least15 percentof the Amazon rainforest has already been destroyed, not including the devastation from最近的火灾。大约80 percent该土地用于种植庄稼,并为牛创造放牧牧场。

农业减少了多少棵树?

树木已经被削减了数千年的人类使用,但是1800年代的工业繁荣增加了对木材的需求,并引入了制造清理土地的技术更快,更简单的过程。

虽然很难确定每年减少多少棵树的确切数量,但是估计在3.5到70亿之间。

一种gricultural expansion accounts for nearly 30 percent of this estimate, including growing crops for livestock and clearing land for grazing.

What is the Biggest Reason for Deforestation?

Based on recent discussions in the media, it is sometimes thought that the largest threat to our rainforests is due to palm oil (used for food and biofuel) or wood (for paper and construction), but beef production surpasses them both as the largest contributor to deforestation.

每年约有670万英亩的热带森林被膨胀或为每年为牛生产燃烧。这个帐户为超过一半在南美洲的森林砍伐,并与该地区的任何其他商品都有五倍以上的破坏性。

Soy production for animal feed is another quiet competitor that has doubled in the past 20 years as a result of the increased demand for meat and dairy products. Of the 346.02 million metric tons of soy每年生产在全球范围内,80%用于动物消费。

大约6000万英亩专门用于巴西的大豆产量,而该号码继续攀升,随着对肉类的需求不断增长。

Other Causes of Deforestation

一种variety of industries cause deforestation either directly or indirectly, but the main driver is animal agriculture. Close behind are logging and infrastructural expansion.

像森林火灾和侵入物种一样存在自然形式的森林砍伐,但它们往往被人类参与加剧。

记录

为了建造房屋,生产纸制品,and build cities, large portions of our forests are cut down.记录is the process of cutting and processing trees to create wood-based products.

Deforestation in tropical regions from logging and timber conversion accounts for15 percent全球温室气体排放量。随着全球人口的增加,增加了更多的房屋,日志记录正在成为顶级森林砍伐驾驶员。

ClearCutting是一种高度侵入的树木去除方法,可破坏来自一个区域的所有树木和种子来源。这种伐木方法用于纸制品和木材,但在牧场也是常见的,以扩大农田和放牧牧场。

This aggressive removal of forests threatens plant and animal species in addition to the natural regrowth of tree saplings.

选择性伐木或者每面积仅取出几棵树,是温和的侵入性,用于高价值木制品,但在这些区域的工艺仍然流离失所,树木仍然损坏。一种study showedthat selective logging actually doubled the total number of trees felled per year instead of reducing the amount.

清除和选择性测井都使森林易受洪水和火灾,因为水和火焰不再受树木和灌木丛阻碍。

Forest Fires

Burning Field

森林被剥夺了清除牛和饲料作物的空间,养成植被和野生动物。

These intentional fires, often called slash-and-burn fires, alter water cycles, compromise soil fertility, and threaten communities of people living and working within the forests.

In 1997, intentional fires set in Indonesia roared out of control, resulting in one of the最大的野火在历史记录中。在火焰中消灭了数百人,动物和植物物种。建议留在菲律宾,泰国和马来西亚等邻国的厚厚的烟雾笼中的毯子,并建议留在里面。

快进至2019年,火焰继续吞噬森林,以迎接大型公司和农业产业的利润。

一种griculture isbelieved to be responsiblefor the recent Amazon fires, specifically land clearing for soy production to feed livestock around the world.

巴西已经经历过70,000多次火灾到目前为止,2019年- 从2018年和企业的金额增加了两倍贪婪可能会责备

巴西火灾地图

全球森林观察

This map displays every fire that has sparked since August 13, 2019 across central South America.

故意农业火灾嘲笑我们的星球,杀害濒危野生动物,威胁到本地社区。

扩大基础设施

Road through Forest

日益增长的全球人口导致城市和高速公路的扩张,往往是生物多样性森林的不幸。

道路,如Intercopeanic高速公路stretching over 1,600 miles from Brazil to Peru, rip through lush forests to make room for cars and trucks.

由于栖息地损失和汽车事故,森林,特别是亚马逊雨林的道路建设,尤其是动物死亡的可能性。新的道路也使非法伐木和偷猎的过程更方便。

基础设施扩张不仅取代了生命ls and increases the risk of deforestation, but it also encroaches on local residents’ homes and livelihoods.

什么导致亚马逊森林砍伐?

在过去的40年里,至少20%亚马逊雨林已经被摧毁。

amazon deforestation chart

Mongabay

农民通过推土机,燃烧或切碎它们来创造放牧区域并生产作物,主要用于牛来消灭树木。

以上图表显示了1995年至2018年的亚马逊雨林损失。该图表是不言自明的:树人口继续下降。

Palm oil production tends to be a recent poster child for deforestation and species endangerment, but animal agriculture is10 times more destructiveto our rainforests, causing over60%亚马逊森林砍伐。

雨林是家50%of the world’s plant and animal species, and the Amazon itself houses at least10 percentof them.

可悲的是,这些物种以及数百万土着人民居住在亚马逊盆地内,正面临灾难,因为森林火灾激增继续撕裂他们的房屋。

一种s previously mentioned, Brazil has already experienced over 70,000 fires so far in 2019, which is a significant increase from42,000火灾于2018年。

巴西的总统jair balsonaro通常被称为“船长锯”反映他愿意利用亚马逊的利润。Bolsonaro的缺乏同情心对我们的星球最多样化的雨林继续煽动本土社区,Brazilian government employees, and the rest of the world, for that matter.

一种t least 20 percent of the Amazon has already been cleared and around 80 percent of that land has been用于牛

根据环境研究员尼古拉斯卡特,“动物农业是减少生物多样性的主要原因,即主要来自森林砍伐。巴西的Cerrado地区是世界上最具生物的多样化的萨凡纳,蔑视了该国一半的大豆作物。该地区的野生物种多样性受到畜禽饲料生产的快速增长和该地区生产的40万牛的威胁。“

Current deforestation rates are increasing and soon the Amazon will not be able to sustain the interconnected ecosystems within it. If the demand for meat continues to rise, like theFAO expects it to而且,农民最终会用完耕地并继续前进到下一个森林。

砍伐森林的影响

森林砍伐是气候变化的主要原因,延续物种灭绝,温室气体排放量增加,降低土壤质量。

森林砍伐的影响会影响整个地球。

Loss of Habitat

人类诱导的土地破坏是栖息地损失植物和动物物种的主要贡献者,特别是在我们的雨林中。Jaguars,懒惰,博博和猩猩只是一些被砍伐森林威胁的更新动物。

如最近的亚马逊火灾所见,燃烧我们的森林可能会导致更多的破坏,而不是仅仅为养牛创造空旷的空间。动物农业是一个leading contributor巴西的森林砍伐和生物多样性损失,被认为是世界上最生物多样化的大草原。

亚马逊雨林并不是唯一一个将其植物和动物栖息地失去人为威胁的人。印度尼西亚的雨林掩盖了一个one percent在地球的表面积中,含有高达20%的已知植物,哺乳动物和鸟类。

Indonesia has already lost70 percent在过去的50年里,它的森林和超过180万英亩的雨林已经被清除了棕榈油,农业和造纸生产。巴西和印度尼西亚是世界上最多的两个国家,但它们被撕裂,经常是非法的,为消费品。

我们正处于边缘sixth mass extinction,如果人类继续撕裂我们的森林的利润,它将比预期更早发生。植物和动物在世界范围内的雨林中的灭绝不会影响该地区的影响。它的效果将摇动整个星球。

Deforestation is a leading cause of climate change which is a leading cause of crop extinction. If our forests continue to vanish and release greenhouse gases into the air,crops likecoffee, tea, avocados, chocolate, wheat, and bananas could be lost in our lifetime.

增加温室气体排放量

牛肉,纸和棕榈油的极端拆除树木扰乱了carbon cycle,这意味着较少的树木可用于吸收空气中的二氧化碳。另外,当切割树木时,特别是大量,过量的二氧化碳被释放到大气中。

carbon cycle

结果,更多的温室气体被释放,这是温暖的行星并有助于气候变化。单独砍伐热带地区的砍伐症15 percentof global greenhouse gas emissions annually.

一种dditionally, when forests are cleared for agriculture and urbanization, more emissions are produced and the effects are prolonged.

破坏水循环

Forests are a vital component of the water cycle that regulates our rivers and precipitation patterns. Without trees, a process calledevapotranspiration– the evaporation from land and release of water from plant leaves – would not occur. This would alter precipitation patterns which would lead to droughts around the world.

水循环

NASA

Research out of the世界资源研究所suggests that large-scale deforestation in any of our major tropical forests, including the Amazon and Africa’s Congo basin, could impact water cycles and lead to severe agricultural disturbances across the globe.

This means deforestation in Brazil can affect the yield of wheat crops in Ohio.

除了调节降雨,evapotranspiration从森林也调节温度。大多数科学家都同意种植树木tropical locations将对整个行星进行冷却效果。

不幸的是,这些温度调节的热带树每天都被数千人减少,这削弱了土壤质量和诱导洪水。

增加侵蚀和洪水

Deforestation removes vegetation which anchors soil in place. Without enough trees, soil is vulnerable to erosion and nutrient loss.

没有根茎导致表土容易洗涤或吹走,导致降低土壤质量和增加的山体滑坡。估计one-thirdof the world’s arable land has been lost to soil erosion and degradation since 1960.

一旦土地被清除,根源被撕掉,种植咖啡和大豆等现金作物,可以使侵蚀更糟糕由于它们的根不能像树一样锚定。

浓郁森林的减少也放大了风暴潮的影响。采取,例如海地和多米尼加共和国。这些国家是邻居,但海地has experienced moreextreme soil erosion, flooding, and landslide issues. The reason is believed to be due to Haiti’s reduced forest cover compared to the Dominican Republic.

Temperate forests in Russia are experiencing increased deforestation and its effects. Timber is a major Russian export, so as loggers invade forests, the土壤受到损害and loses its ability to hold moisture which leads to flooding.

Flooding and forest fires are threatening Russia’s permafrost layer, which holds two-thirds of the country. As this layer melts, sinkholes form and devour wildlife and vegetation.

Most Impacted Species and Locations

亚马逊雨林是地球上最具生物化的森林,但也是最森林的。巴西,玻利维亚,秘鲁,厄瓜多尔,哥伦比亚,委内瑞拉,圭亚那,苏里南和法国圭亚那弥补了亚马逊雨林所在的地方。

由于过度的伐木,农业和牛生产,巴西,玻利维亚和秘鲁因森林砍伐而受到最严重的打击。

One in ten known species on the planet live within the Amazon and they will all be in danger if deforestation rates continue to climb. White-cheeked spider monkeys, Brazilian bare-faced tamarins, and the giant otter are just a fewspecies facing extinction在亚马逊由于农业,牛牧场和基础设施扩张。

Sumatran rainforests, which are home to most of the world’s orangutans, are being ravaged for palm oil and paper products. Rhinos, tigers, and gorillas are being displaced by deforestation or illegally poached in Asia and Africa.

Forests in Mexico are disappearing at the hands of agricultural expansion, ranching, and lumber production. One of America’s favorite foods, avocado, is威胁墨西哥森林通过使农民清理更多的森林空间来跟上需求上升。

一种s long as the demand for meat, timber, and palm oil rises, habitats will continue to be scorched and chopped, and the animals depending on them will perish.

How Can We Stop Deforestation?

First, let’s address the largest contributor to global deforestation – meat production. The world’s demand for beef, chicken, and pork is a leading cause of habitat loss, resource use, and greenhouse gas emissions.

世界各地的消费者在不知不觉支持砍伐森林,通过与它的关系,特别是从巴西购买。其中一个largest meat suppliers在世界上,巴西公司JBS拥有像朝圣者一样的主要肉类生产商,并与Smithfield,泰森和嘉吉这样的热门品牌。

In 2017, JBS was involved in an illegal deforestation scandal by purchasing cattle from suppliers who were illegally clearing land. The following year, yet another JBS supplier was found using environmentally protected land for cattle ranching.

Leather, a common byproduct of Brazilian meat production, is shipped around the world to make shoes, upholster cars, and create fashion accessories. Bertin, a Brazilian company found to use illegally deforested land, waslinked to brands如耐克,阿迪达斯,Timberland,Clarks,BMW,Volkswagen,Ford,Toyota和Gm。

Daniel Brindis, Senior Forest Campaigner for Greenpeace, stated: “A lot of that leather comes from slaughterhouses in Brazil and then is directly exported to the US.” So far in 2019, 14.3 million square meters of Brazilian leather have been出口世界各地。中国是巴西皮革的领先进口国,美国靠近美国。

如果世界想要停止森林砍伐,我们必须停止支持从中获利的行业。

作为一个有意识的消费者可以帮助减少对世界各地森林砍伐的需求。通过选择当地,植物的食品选项而不是资源密集的肉类或乳制品,使用天然纤维而不是皮革,以及从可持续来源采购纸制产品,您可以为巨大的个人影响。

支持重新造林举措,如伊甸园重新造林项目,是有所作为的另一种主要方法。全球各地的组织正在种植树木以恢复森林,帮助植物和动物物种再次茁壮成长。捐款或时间可以加速恢复过程。

此外,支持基础野生动物司法委员会将有助于减少偷猎和捕获,并通过恢复野生动物社区来改善生物多样性。

对环境更好的素食主义者吗?

说服整个星球去素食过夜,以打击气候变化是不可行的。可行的是转向饮食重点关注植物的食物。

如果美国每年只会减少肉类消费,每年将节省8200万吨温室气体排放量。从美国饮食中删除肉quadruple that number

If every person on the planet reduced their meat intake, especially those purchasing meat from deforested land, our global GHG emissions would reduce drastically. Even if we all just participated in a无肉星期一节目每周一天,我们可以节省相当于在路上服用760万辆汽车的排放。

素食主义不仅仅是关于食物选择。它带入我们的个人护理产品,服装,甚至家具和汽车。通过支持不使用皮革或动物衍生产品的公司,我们将发表声明并减少对残忍和环境破坏的需求。

Conclusion

肉类生产是森林砍伐的主要原因。它摧毁了动物栖息地,跛子生物多样性,并增加了我们的氛围中的温室气体排放。消费者经常通过购买来自不可持续行动的食品,动物副产物和/或木制品来支持砍伐森林。

幸运的是,保护群体世界各地正在努力恢复我们多样化的森林。在个人级别上,我们可以与我们花费的每一美元产生差异。可持续供应商的购买将消费市场转移远离支持我们星球的支持。

选择植物的食物可以拯救世界各地的宝贵森林。森林需要我们的帮助,但我们需要更多。

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